The era of globalization is characterized by the rapid proliferation of information technology and communication. Secure cyberspace is the era of globalization and is a crucial element in maintaining national security. This plays an important role in achieving a country’s economic stability and effective security (Williams, 2013). Cyberspace is the world of computer networks (and the users behind them) where information is stored, exchanged and revealed. (Singer and Friedman, 2014). With the rapid and dramatic growth of information and communication technology (ICT), cyber-crime has become a major security issue in the international arena. Both individual cybercriminals and state-sponsored cyber-attacks pose threats to states protecting their confidential data. Apart from having a profound impact on the economic progress and defence systems, these threats escalate diplomatic tensions leading to anarchy in the world order. Global peace, stability, and development might be affected by the abuse of information communication technology. Bangladesh with its less sophisticated cyber-surveillance system and cybersecurity tools may easily become a safe haven for cybercriminals committing phishing, hacking and stealing personal data. Digital services extended to people by the government and non- government sectors and personal and organizational data are targeted by criminals.

Proper security measures are not often ensured while providing services through digital platforms. In addition, the Information Communication Technology Act, 2006 (The ICT Act, 2006) might do little to secure cyberspace. This study endeavours to explore the major challenges for Bangladesh with its disarrayed cybersecurity and countermeasures in the context of the globalized world. In this respect, the study re- examined the efficacy of the existing information and telecommunication laws and proffers restitutive measures to ensure cybersecurity in Bangladesh. The study concludes with the utterance that the time is ripe for Bangladesh to enhance its cybersecurity and secure its cyberspace.

When we start to think about cyber security in Bangladesh, the words stuck in our mind that are ‘pirated software’ and poor infrastructural system to protect cyber space in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, around 90% of software is pirated (Bleyder, 2012). Using pirated software has become a culture and habit to Bangladesh people. This habit of using pirated software is leading us to more vulnerable position in the cyber security domain.. Apart from security concern regarding pirated software uses, there are some grave challenges as well regarding Bangladesh cyber security that we cannot deny anymore. To understand the challenges of cyber security in Bangladesh, first we need to be aware of the nature of cyber crimes in Bangladesh that we are facing day to day life. We can divide it into four categories. First, cyber crimes that are targeting individuals, such as: hacking or cracking, illegal/unauthorized access, illegal interception, data interferences, E-mail spoofing, spamming, cheating and fraud, harassment and cyber stalking, defamation, drug trafficking, transmitting virus and worms, intellectual property crimes, computer and network resources vandalism, internet time and information thefts, forgery, denial of services, dissemination of obscene material etc. Second one is cyber crime against property such as: credit card fund stealing, intellectual property crimes, internet time theft etc. Third one is crime against organizations. Such crime examples are like unauthorized control/access over the network resources and websites, exposing indecent/obscene materials over the web pages, virus attack, E-mail bombing, logic bombing, Trojan horse, data diddling, blocking from access, theft of important
possessions, terrorism against government organizations, vandalizing the infrastructure of the network etc. Fourth and last category of cyber crimes are happening against the society or social values of Bangladesh. Such crimes are like forgery, online gambling, trafficking, pornography (especially child pornography), financial crimes, polluting the youth through indecent exposure, web jacking etc

We are not saying this is the only challenge that Bangladesh is facing right now in the quest of cyber security but we cannot ignore the impacts and consequences of it
either. We should know the Following matter-

(1) The possible interventions that can be implemented in many organizations to prevent their data, networks, and systems from cyber-attack
(2) The different measures we have taken to minimize and mitigate the Cyber-crime in Bangladesh.
(3) The major weaknesses and constraints we faced to control cyber crime in Bangladesh?
(4) The measures should be taken for ensuring Cyber security at global level.

In Bangladesh, ladies are excessively exposed to viciousness and provocation; cyberbullying to porn are mentionable peculiarities that are worked with by the web and other electronic gadgets. While the expansion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and blossoming Internet penetration are considered as sure markers of advancement in the nation, yet their relationship with certain current socio physiological settings and deficient legitimate securities have prepared for broad digital brutalities against ladies. Overall, the kind of this glaring encroachment of common freedoms goes from cyberstalking, retribution porn, cyberbullying, and savaging. Ladies are the essential focuses of antagonistic and habitually powerful salacious motions and deriding messages on the web from unidentified and fake sources. In June 2019, the Bangladesh National Women Lawyers’ Association detailed that baiting stayed an issue and lacking preventive and neutralizing regulations made a few young ladies exit their classes or works in view of injury and disgrace. The foundation of objection boards and the establishment of grievance boxes at instructive organizations and work environments commanded by the order of the court have seldom been carried out (USSD, 2017).

All the time web-based entertainment accounts are hacked with pernicious purpose. The lawbreakers for the most part transfer fabricated profane photographs of the people in question, send provocative messages to the casualties’ contacts (for example Facebook companions) to slander and embarrass them. A portion of the vital intentions of these culprits incorporate spreading the people in question, getting payback, constraining them to lay out actual connections, squeezing for quiet cash, truly torture the people in question, etc. An example is seen while evaluating the claims, examination, and media reports of digital brutality against ladies in Bangladesh. Most usually the culprits lay out consensual actual contact with the casualties procuring their trust. They film the personal minutes with stowed away cameras introduced in the scenes, it is self-evident assuming the example of these terrible violations is noticed intently. Sadly, it doesn’t stop here, the hoodlums then proceed to extort the people in question and constrain them to acquire their evil thought processes. Those clasps are utilized later to drive the casualties to submit themselves to the desire of the crooks requesting continuation actual connections and quiet cash. In the interim, hoodlums frequently record the odious demonstrations of assaults and film the episodes. Those video accounts are utilized later by the culprits to quiet the casualties to manhandle them moreover. Those accounts are most regularly delivered on the web notwithstanding entries of the casualties making them damaged and demonized in the public eye. There are reports of passings by self destruction as the casualties feel completely vulnerable and track down no progress. Another example is additionally seen where malignant exes and sweethearts post personal recordings or photos on the web to fulfill their hard feelings. As young ladies are less capable to the web they are generally defenseless against succumbing to the snares of cybercriminals.

The impacts of Cybercrime in Bangladesh is unavoidable. The groups of the casualties are likewise extraordinarily impacted by such occurrences. The series of occasions that follow are a twofold blow similarly for the people in question and their families frequently leaving them excluded. Individuals will more often than not completely accept that anything stuff they run over in web-based entertainment. Such an unpredictable conviction framework is the consequence of empty public brain science coming from an absence of mindfulness, obliviousness, and training. Thusly, when a purportedly delivered photograph of a young lady surfaces on the web stirred up with a tactless tattle, general web clients trouble practically nothing to confirm whether the photograph is genuine or manufactured. Happily they proceed to gaze at the items and make those viral. This propensity to spread sex-related tattle enhances the casualties’ sufferings manifolds. The outcomes of these digital viciousness are lamentable at individual levels prompting serious sadness, a feeling of culpability, neurosis, and anxiety toward damage to self and relatives. Casualty’s profession, schooling, and public activity are imperilled by these issues with some of mthem following the way of illicit drug use some deciding to take their lives. Not very many of the casualties recuperate from the injury in a modest bunch of outstanding cases.

Taken everything into account, the issue of cybercrimes is emerging as a global phenomenon which poses potential threats to the national security of any country and Bangladesh is no exception to that rather the issue of cybercrimes is more worrying for the country in the context of globalization. Because of the absence of advanced cybersecurity tools and people’s ignorance in handling tech gadgets coupled with lack of awareness in cyber security threats mmight have disastrous impacts on the country. In addition, the country’s laws seem inadequate to safeguard the cyberspace of the country. International collaboration, enhancing technical know-how, gaining expertise and campaigning on people’s preparedness on how to deal with cybersecurity threats are some of the remedial aspects the country may take into consideration to combat ever-looming cybersecurity threats.

About Writer: Moriom Akter Mou, Lecturer, Department of Law. I am Moriom Akter Mou, a graduate of LL.B and LL.M from the Department of Law at Daffodil International University. I started my career at Daffodil International University in 2021 as a Research Associate and later became a Lecturer in the same department. In addition, I am the moderator of the Daffodil Moot Court Society. My research focuses on Environmental Law and Cyber Security in Bangladesh and I have published four articles in Scopus Index. I am passionate about working with students and helping them to develop academically, socially, linguistically and in research. I consider it a daily honor to contribute to the progress and growth of each student.